The holy book of Islam is the Qur'an and Friday is the holy day. Every day Muslims are called to prayer from mosques five times.
Muslims regard Christians and Jews with respect and consider them the fellow people of the Book. They regard Jesus as one of the prophets of Allah. The last prophet is Muhammad and to him the Qur'an was dictated .
The Hijra calendar is based on the lunar cycle and is 11 days shorter than the Gregorian calender. Therefore each year Islamic holidays fall approximately 11 days earlier than in the previous year. The precise dates are known only shortly before they fall since they depend on the sighting of the moon.
Eid al-Fitr (the little feast): a three-day celebration that marks the end of Ramadan, the month of fasting.
Eid al-Adha (the big feast): a four-day celebration at the end of the days of the Hajj season, the pilgrimage to Mecca. It commemorates the Prophet Ibrahim's offering of Isma'il for sacrifice. Families who can afford to slaughter a lamb share the meat with the poor Muslims.
Hijra New Year: Islamic New Year.
Moulid an-Nabi: the birthday of the Prophet Muhammad.
Eid al-Isra waal Mi'raj: the feast that celebrates the noctural visit of the Prophet Muhammad to heaven.
During Ramadan everyone fasts between sunrise and sunset to conform to the fourth pillar of Islam. If you are in Jordan at this time, be sensitive to the fact that most of the people around you are fasting and they are being without food all day.
Ramadan ends with a huge feast, Eid al-Fitr, where everyone prays together, visits friends, gives presents and prepares large meals.
During Ramadan smoking, eating and drinking in public is prohibited during the hours of daylight and alcohol is not sold, except to non-Muslims in the larger hotels.